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Instructional Design Models

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 Martin Ryder of University of Colorado at Denver, Colorado stated,
"Models, like myths and metaphors, help us to make sense of our world. Whether it is derived from whim or from serious research, a model offers its user a means of comprehending an otherwise incomprehensible problem. An instructional design model gives structure and meaning to an I.D. problem, enabling the would-be designer to negotiate her design task with a semblance of conscious understanding. Models help us to visualize the problem, to break it down into discrete, manageable units."

         One thing seems certain, we can learn from the many models that are research based and rooted in theory. When appropriate, I believe model elements from different models can be blended or enriched as necessary.

Jeri Stickney Phillips


Retrieved from http://faculty.concordia.edu/david_kluth/IDsite/Models.html

Below are a few instructional design models.
Visit the websites at the top of this page for many more.




The Dick and Carey Design Model uses a systems approach for designing instruction. One of the best known models, its approach to designing instruction is similar to that of software engineering. The design model describes all the phases of an iterative process that starts by identifying instructional goals and ends with summative evaluation. This model is applicable across a range of context areas (e.g., K-12 to business to government) and users (novice to expert).




The Gerlach-Ely Design Model is a prescriptive model that is well suited to K-12 and higher education. It is meant for novice instructional designers who have knowledge and expertise in a specific context. The model includes strategies for selecting and including media within instruction. It also handles the allocation of resources.




The Hannafin Peck Design Model is a three phase process. In the first phase, a needs assessment is performed. This phase is followed by a design phase. In the third phase, instruction is developed and implemented. In this model, all of the phases involve a process of evaluation and revision.



The Knirk and Gustafson Design Model is a three stage process which includes problem determination, design and development. The problem determination stage involves identifying the problem and setting instructional goals. The design stage includes developing objectives and specifying strategies. Finally, in the development stage, materials are developed.




The Jerrold Kemp Design Model takes a holistic approach to instructional design. Virtually all factors in the learning environment are taken into consideration including subject analysis, learner characteristics, learning objectives, teaching activities, resources (computers, books, etc.), support services and evaluation. The process is iterative and the design is subject to constant revision.




Tripp and Bichelmeyer's Rapid Prototyping Design Model is a four level process that is intended to create instruction for lessons as opposed to entire curricula. The process stages include performing a needs analysis, constructing a prototype, utilizing the prototype to perform research and installing the final system. This model relies on expert instructional designers to utilize heuristics as well as their past experience and intuition to guide the design.



Retrieved from http://leanlearning.wikispaces.com/instructional_design

Instructional Design


“Teachers must learn how to teach... they need only to be taught more effective ways of teaching.”—Burrhus Frederic Skinner



Knowles’ Postulates of Adult Learning


Visual representation of Knowles' andragogy showing the four postulates of adult learning
Visual representation of Knowles' andragogy showing the four postulates of adult learning

For corporate learners—who are essentially adults—the instructional premise around which training programs are designed should be andragogy (teaching to adults), not pedagogy (teaching to children). For this, Malcolm Knowles’ theory is used, which has four key postulates:
  1. Self-concept and Motivation to learn—Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction. This includes pre-assessments and custom learning paths for different knowledge prerequisites.
  2. Experience—Experience (including mistakes) provides the basis for learning activities. This encompasses practice activities with feedback and remedial reviews.
  3. Readiness to learn—Adults are most interested in learning those subjects that have immediate relevance to their job or personal life. Job-specific content and job-aids are provided for this purpose.
  4. Orientation to learning—Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented. For this, scenarios and simulations for real-world problem-solving experience are provided.

Bloom’s Taxonomy for Cognitive Domain


Depiction of Bloom's taxonomy for the cognitive domain showing the six mastery levels
Depiction of Bloom's taxonomy for the cognitive domain showing the six mastery levels

As most of corporate learning programs aim to build cognitive (thinking) skills, Benjamin Bloom’s taxonomy is used to define the learning objectives/ outcomes for such programs. Bloom’s taxonomy has six levels:
  1. Knowledge—This level of learning is said to be achieved if, after completing the content, learners are able to recall their learnings.
  2. Comprehension—This level of learning is said to be achieved if, after completing the content, learners are able to restate the concepts in their own words.
  3. Application—This level of learning is said to be achieved if, after completing the content, learners are able to apply their learnings at work.
  4. Analysis—This level of learning is said to be achieved if, after completing the content, learners are able to analyze the constituent components of typical work problems.
  5. Synthesis—This level of learning is said to be achieved if, after completing the content, learners are able to synthesize new solutions to typical work problems.
  6. Evaluation—This level of learning is said to be achieved if, after completing the content, learners are able to judge the quality of new solutions to typical work problems, and then decide on the optimal solution.

Gagne’s Instructional Events


Rendition of Gagne's instructional events showing the nine steps to learning transfer
Rendition of Gagne's instructional events showing the nine steps to learning transfer

Learning units need to have a structure that enables systematic progression of instruction. Robert Gagne’s theory identifies this step-by-step building of learning as nine instructional events:
  1. Gain attention, wherein the learner is presented with an introductory scenario or rhetorical questions
  2. Inform learners of objective, wherein the learner is presented with the learning objectives
  3. Stimulate recall of prior learning, wherein the learner is presented with experience recollection
  4. Present stimulus material, wherein the learner is presented with content presentation
  5. Provide learner guidance, wherein the learner is presented with graphics and examples
  6. Elicit performance, wherein the learner is presented with practice activities
  7. Provide feedback, wherein the learner is presented with practice feedback
  8. Assess performance, wherein the learner is presented with post-assessment
  9. Enhance retention and transfer, wherein the learner is presented with job aids and resources

Merrill’s Components Display Theory


Merrill's Components Display Theory presented as a 2-dimensional grid
Merrill's Components Display Theory presented as a 2-dimensional grid

Within each learning unit, optimal presentation tactics and components should be used to enable the learning process. David Merrill’s Components Display Theory (CDT) on these learning components and their displaying tactics enables instructional designers effectively keep the learner engaged in each learning unit. Content of typical courseware covers the “facts”, “concepts”, “procedures”, and “principles” of a specific knowledge or skill component. Depending on the learning outcome, a combination of presentation tactics and components enables the learner to “remember” the new learnings acquired via the courseware, “use” the learnings at work, and also “find” new ways to apply the learnings.

The CDT tactics—called “primary performance forms”—are:
  • Expository—”Show” the learners, including visuals and demonstrations
  • Expository—”Tell” the learners, including text and audio
  • Inquisitory—”Ask” the learners, including learner interactivities
The CDT components—called “secondary performance forms”—are:
  • Prerequisites, such as learner prerequisites
  • Objectives, such as learning objectives
  • Helps, such as global/ contextual helps, hints, job-aids (templates)
  • Mnemonics, such as job aids (checklists)
  • Feedback, such as remedial, reinforcement

Source: http://elearning-guidelines.wikispaces.com/




 

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